Thursday, June 30, 2011

National Firefighter Near-Miss Reporting System; Untapped Resource

Have you heard about the National Firefighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NMRS)? Have you used the NMRS Reports, or submitted a near miss event? Did you know there is a wealth of resources available on the NMRS web site or that there is a Report of the week that is published weekly?

If not, this is a great opportunity to learn about this national fire service program.

The National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System is a voluntary, confidential, non-punitive and secure reporting system with the goal of improving fire fighter safety.

Submitted reports will be reviewed by fire service professionals. Identifying descriptions are removed to protect your identity. The report is then posted on this web site for other fire fighters to use as a learning tool.

Have you submitted a near-miss event? If not, Why Not?

The reporting system is funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program. The program was originally funded by DHS and Fireman's Fund Insurance Company.

There are three main goals:

1. To give firefighters the opportunity to learn from each other through real-life experiences;
2. To help formulate strategies to reduce the frequency of firefighter injuries and fatalities; and
3. To enhance the safety culture of the fire and emergency service.

Fire fighters can use submitted reports as educational tools. Analyzed data will be used to identify trends which can assist in formulating strategies to reduce fire fighter injuries and fatalities. Depending on the urgency, information will be presented to the fire service community via program reports, press releases and e-mail alerts.

Why should I submit a near-miss report? A near miss experienced by a firefighter can improve the knowledge, skills and abilities of everyone who is made aware of it. Reporting your near-miss event to will help prevent an injury or fatality of a firefighter. Near-miss reporting has worked effectively in other industries, especially aviation, since team members have more knowledge. Industries using near-miss reporting systems have lower injury rates and fewer worker fatalities.

Take the time to browse through the NMRS web site and familiarize yourself with the content, resources and information available to you.

Realize that the resource center and the near-miss reports are all formulative and can very easily support training drill development, just in time training, table-top discussions, scenario based exercises and review discussions with company, staff or command officers and all station or company personnel.NMRS Resource Section, HERE


Near-Miss Reporting Form example, HERE
Got a Near-Miss Report to Submit?

Click on the button for a direct link to the NFNMRS here

Frequent Questions:

Taking it to the Streets, Blogtalk radio on (link here)
Taking it to the Streets presented a great program originally aired on Wednesday March 16th , 2011 where we discussed the National Near Miss Reporting System and program with Chief Steve Mormino, NMRS Program Advisor past Chief with South Farmingdale (NY) Fire Department and retired Lieutenant , FDNY. Download this exceptional program from iTunes or here

Taking it to the StreetsTM is a monthly radio show featured on BlogTalk Radio and is hosted by nationally renowned fire service leader Christopher Naum, a 36-year fire service veteran and highly regarded national instructor, author, lecturer and fire officer and the distinguished leading national authority on building construction and fire ground operations.

Taking it to the StreetsTM is a Series and Production, © 2011 All Rights Reserved

Taking it to the Streets: Near Miss Reporting and One Captain’s Close Call

Podcast: Play in new window | Download
The progam was produced from the Live Broadcast on March 16th, 2011

Taking it to the Streets: Near Miss Reporting and One Captain’s Close Call

On Your Street, In Your City, Across the Country, Around the WorldTM

The direct show link is here

The line-up of Program guests included, Lt. Steve Mormino, FDNY (ret), Captain CJ Haberkorn Denver (CO) Fire Department and Special Guest Captain Michael Long, Camp Taylor (KY) Fire Protection District.

Grab a cup of coffee and sit down for a special two part, two hour program with Taking it to the Streets on where we’ll be discussing the National Near-Miss Reporting System and the untapped resources that the program and system provides with Christopher Naum and this outstanding group of fire service leaders. The second part of the program will dedicated to the personal account of Captain Long’s Close Call event from July 25, 2010 (NMR #10-1072) when a catastrophic floor collapse at a residential occupancy plunged him into a fire involved basement.

Check out the latest downloads of recent programs in the archives by visiting Taking it to the Street’s webpage on or for program insights at
  • HERE
  • Taking it to the Streets Radio Programs, HERE and HERE
  •, HERE
Taking it to the StreetsTM, radio program hosted by highly regarded national instructor, author, lecturer and fire officer Christopher Naum, continues to provide provocative insights and dynamic discussions with leading national fire service leaders and guests on important issues affecting the American Fire Service with applications internationally within the tradition and brotherhood of the Fire Service.

Taking it to the StreetsTM, is a Series and Firefighter Production, in affiliation with the Command Institute

National Fire Fighter Near Miss Reporting System’s Support for the 2011 Safety Week

Don’t forget to go to the National Firefighter Near Miss Reporting System for number of exceptional training aids, resources, PPT and more. NFFNMRS, HERE

Here are some of the National Firefighter Near Miss Reporting System Programs that were produced for this year's 2011 Safety

  • Presentation: Preventing The Mayday

  • A powerpoint presentation about situational awareness, planning, size-up, and defensive operations

  • Presentation: Being Ready for the Mayday

  • A powerpoint presentation about personal safety equipment, communications, and accountability systems

  • Presentation: Fire Fighter Expectations of Command

  • A powerpoint presentation about fire fighter expectations of command.

  • Presentation: Self-Survival Skills

  • A powerpoint presentation about self survival skills at a mayday.

  • Presentation: Self-Survival Procedures

  • A powerpoint presentation about self survival procedures.

  • Grouped Report: Preventing The Mayday

  • A grouped report about situational awareness, planning, size-up, and defensive operations

  • Grouped Report: Self Survival Procedures

  • A grouped report about self survival procedures

  • Grouped Report: Being Ready for the Mayday

  • A grouped report about personal safety equipment, communications, and accountability systems
    For more information on the NMRS:Rynnel Gibbs

    Near Miss Reporting System Advisory Board
    • Dennis Smith, Chairman, First Responders Financial Co. (Chair of Advisory Board)
    • Jim Brinkley, Director of Occupational Health and Safety, International Association of Fire Fighters.
    • Alan Brunacini, Fire Chief
    • Linda Connell, Director, NASA/Aviation Safety Reporting System
    • I. David Daniels, Fire Chief/CEO, Woodinville Fire and Rescue (WA)
    • Gordon Graham, Graham Research Consultants
    • William Goldfeder, Deputy Chief, Loveland-Symmes Fire Dept. (OH)
    • Manuel Gomez, Chief, City of Hobbs Fire Dept. (NM)
    • Bill Halmich, Fire Chief, Washington Fire Dept. (MO)
    • Christopher Hart, Vice Chair, National Transportation Safety Board
    • Mark Light, Executive Director/Chief Executive Officer, International Association of Fire Chiefs
    • Ed Mann, State Fire Commissioner, Office of the PA State Fire Commissioner
    Take a look at the NMRS Partners, HERE

    As a Company or Command Officer you have an obligation to capture your department’s near-miss events and contribute to the National Firefighter Near-Miss Reporting System data base so the fire service can learn from each event with the objective that they are not repeated or escalate into something more severe or significant in terms of injuries or line of duty death events.

    Monday, June 27, 2011

    188 Days of Opportunity to make a Difference

    During this week, there were on average, over 8,600 structure fires in the United States. According to NFPA statistics the following occur on average in the U.S;
    • A fire department responded to a fire every 23 seconds.
    • One structure fire was reported every 66 seconds.
    • One home structure fire was reported every 87 seconds
    • One civilian fire injury was reported every 31 minutes.
    • One civilian fire death occurred every 2 hours and 55 minutes.
    • One outside fire was reported every 49 seconds.
    • One vehicle fire was reported every 146 seconds.
    There are on average of Eight to Ten Firefighter Line-of-duty Deaths each month.

    Thus far in 2011 there have been Forty-seven (47) LODD events in the United States. During the same period in 2010, there were thirty-seven (37) LODD events.

    During the month of June, there have been nine (9) Fire Fighter Line-of-Duty Deaths, four (4) occurring during Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week.

    The following from the USFA LODD notification page;
    Firefighter's NameCity, StateDate of Death
    Pham, Chris Dallas, Texas06/23/2011
    Burch, Josh Lake City, Florida06/20/2011
    Fulton, Brett Lake City, Florida06/20/2011
    West, Robin ErlicWellford, South Carolina06/19/2011
    Shaw, Corey Du Quoin, Illinois06/17/2011
    Davis, Scott Muncie, Indiana06/15/2011
    Rasmussen, Garet Wenatchee, Washington06/12/2011
    Valerio, Anthony M.San Francisco, California06/04/2011
    Perez, Vincent A.San Francisco, California06/02/2011

    From the NFPA

    Firefighter fatalities (NFPA 2010)
    • There were 72 firefighter deaths in 2010 (NFPA)
    • There were 87 firefighter deaths in 2010 (USFA)
    • Stress, exertion, and other medical-related issues, which usually result in heart attacks or other sudden cardiac events, almost always account for the largest share of deaths in any given year. Of the 39 exertion- or medical-related fatalities in 2010, 34 were classified as sudden cardiac deaths and five were due to strokes or brain aneurysm.
    • Fireground operations accounted for 21 deaths.
    • Residential structure fires accounted for the largest share of fireground deaths (eight deaths).
    • Eleven firefighters died in nine vehicle crashes. In addition to those deaths, four other firefighters were struck and killed by vehicles.
    Firefighter injuries (NFPA 2009)
    • There were 78,150 firefighter injuries in 2009.
    • 32,205 of all firefighter injuries in 2009 occurred during fireground operations. Other firefighter injuries by type of duty include: responding to, or returning from an incident (4,965); training (7,935); non-fire emergency (15,455); and other on-duty activities (17,590).
    • The major types of injuries received during fireground operations were: strain, sprain; muscular pain; wound, cut, bleeding, bruise; and smoke or gas inhalation.
    • The leading causes of fireground injuries were overexertion, strain (25.2%) and fall, slip, jump (22.7%).
    • Regionally, the Northeast had the highest fireground injury rate.
    This past week, the Fire Service set aside and dedicated a week to allow departments and organizations to focus and concentrate efforts and attention on Fire and EMS safety, health and survival.

    The theme and focus in 2011 was Surviving the Fire Ground – Fire Fighter, Fire Officer and Command Preparedness. Primary to the theme was a focus on the mayday event and its various workings and components. Seven days were designated for Safety, however what did you or your organization devoted towards the goals and objectives of Safety Week?

    Recognizing there are unique and diverse circumstances and demands within all of our organizations, operations and jurisdictions, and not everyone may have scheduled time or had enough time to allow for the planning and execution of applicable training programs, drills and activities attentive and objective to Safety week. Regardless, it is not too late to plan, develop, schedule, implement and execute. Opportunities are there, you just need to make it happen or advocate for such.
    • There are 188 days of opportunity remaining in 2011.
    • There are approximately 358 days of opportunity until the 2012 Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week.
    • Enhance upon what you are doing well, improve on what may need advancement or what isn’t up to standards and identify and develop that which is needed but has yet to be implemented.
    • Don’t miss these opportunities to make a difference or to influence and change destiny; You have that ability.
    • You have choices and decisions to be made, they all have ramifications; Like choosing the red or blue pill…..

    The Consciences Observer or Activist

    So, at the conclusion of Safety week and as you begin a new week and soon a new month the operative question today is this:
    • What did you do on your last alarm response related to operational safety and enhanced situational awareness?
    • How about your last training evolution or training drill?
    • How about Safety week, hopefully you engaged and participated…
    • Do you: participate in, contribute, join in, share, lead, promote, instruct, present, facilitate, help, assist, aid, or
    • neglect, disregard, undermine, abuse, challenge, demoralize, undercut, damage, torpedo, circumvent, or avoid?
    Take a minute to look over the following list that I first published on December 31, 2010 in advance of the new year, think about what each of these line items can do for you, your organization and the fire service in 2011. It's mid year and coming on the closing days of this year's Safety Week activities, it seemed appropriate to list them again.
    Don’t sacrifice or forego on these mission critical areas when so much is at stake in the domain of combat structural fire suppression, fire ground survival and the integrated operational and safety needs shared by firefighters, company officers and commanders.

    Understand the predictability of performance in the buildings and occupancies not only in your jurisdiction, first or second-due areas, but also in those areas that you may be called upon to respond to for greater alarms or mutual aid. Remember Building Knowledge = Firefighter Safety. Understand and improve upon your skill set levels and those of your company, battalion, division, department or region.

    Twenty Eleven (2011)

    Here are twenty-one (21) Suggested activities, actions or initiatives for you to consider completing in next six months of 2011….

    Above all, be safe in all your endeavors, assignments and incident tasks.
    1. Regardless of my years of experience, I will increase my understanding of the basic principles of Building Construction, because; Building Knowledge=Firefighter Safety.
    2. Identify eleven (11) buildings within your first-due or response district and complete a pre-fire plan and present this to my company of organization.
    3. Identify an area where new residential construction is underway and follow the construction process from foundation through completion to gain an understanding of operational issues.
    4. I will complete the UL Structural stability of engineered lumber in fire conditions online course AND the new UL Fire Behavior course and implement the lessons learned in my strategic and tactical operations.
    5. I will not take any building or occupancy for granted, and shall take all precautions to ensure crew integrity and safety during my task assignments.
    6. Complete a 360 assessment of all buildings upon arrival (or delegate), whenever feasible to gain reconnaissance information on the building and incident risks and implement this info into my strategic, tactical plans or company task assignments.
    7. Research the issues affecting; Engineered Structural Systems (ESS), Fire Behavior/Fire Dynamics or Fire Suppression Management/Fire Loading and develop a training drill to share the lessons learned.
    8. Select a new or previous published fire service text book and read up on a subject area that I may have neglected or ignored to increase my skill set.
    9. Implement an objective approach towards effective risk assessment and profiling of all buildings and occupancies during incident operations and implement balanced tactical deployment with aggressive/measured assignments; recognizing that my company and I are not invincible.
    10. During demanding Combat Structural Fire Engagements, I will; Do the Right Thing at the Right Time for the Right Reasons and will not practice Tactical Entertainment.
    11. Read the Report of the Week (ROTW) on the National Firefighter Near-Miss Reporting System web site and share the operating experience (OE) lessons with my company or department, to reduce the likelihood of a similar or more serious event.
    12. I will read Eleven (11) NIOSH Firefighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program Reports and present the lessons learned in a discussion, table top, and drill or training program.
    13. I will attend a regional or national training conference to increase my perspective and awareness of other firefighting, safety or operational methodologies, process or practices to increase firefighter safety in my home organization.
    14. I will increase my understanding of the NFFF Everyone Goes Home Program initiatives, including the Sixteen Firefighter Life Safety Initiatives, Safety Thru Leadership and the Courage to Be Safe Programs and other new program initiatives and advocate and promote enhanced safety measures in my organization.
    15. I will advocate and promote safe and defensive apparatus operations during emergency responses and will always buckle-up my seat belt and ensure my crew is always belted-in, not placing my company at risk and obeying traffic signals and postings.
    16. I will implement the New Rules of Engagement during combat structural fire operations; while monitoring and reacting to on-going building performance and fire behavior.
    17. I will increase my understanding of the Predictability of Building Performance and base my operational deployments on Occupancy Risk not Occupancy Type.
    18. I will become a mentor to a new or less experienced firefighter and promote the traditions, honor and duty of our fire service profession, tempered with an emphasis on firefighter safety, survival and wellness.
    19. I will take NO emergency incident responses as being routine in nature, due to frequency , regularity or past performance, demands or outcomes, nor will I take any building for granted; Company, Team and personal safety and integrity is paramount and I will not be complacent, but remain vigilant based upon my training, skills and experience.
    20. I will be an aggressive firefighter; operating smarter, working within the parameters of my Department’s protocols, regulations and expectations while employing Tactical Patience and NOT underestimate the fireground, fire behavior or building performance
    21. I will not settle for status quo; but strive to achieve my highest potential as a firefighter, company officer or commander; and remember I am a brother/sister (firefighter) to everyone in this great profession
    Ensure you’re glancing occasionally in your rear view mirror to monitor where you’ve been, while driving your initiatives, programs, processes and actions forward. Above all, maintain the courage to be safe.

    Stop and reflect today, where do you stand? What are your true beliefs and convictions in regards to the developing safety culture that is being forged and institutionalized within our fire service? Are your professing one thing, but implementing or allowing another circumstance?

    Keep an eye in the rear view mirror; learning from the wisdom and knowledge from where you’ve been, what you’ve done and all your past experiences and practice; but at the same time focusing on the road before you with keen attentiveness on situational awareness, anticipating error-likely conditions and balanced risk assessment and operational management in both your strategic and tactical deployments. Take those opportunities; all 188 days of opportunity remaining in 2011 AND the 358 days of opportunity until the 2012 Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week. Make a difference, however small. You can do it.

    Here are the links to this week's previous Safety Week postings and articles on

    If you didn’t have a look and read, take some time to do so. If you didn’t do anything during Safety Week, there’s always next week or the week after… find the time and commit to some training, insights, dialog, discussion…Get Prepared.

    Day One: Fire/EMS Safety, Health & Survival Week 2011: Day One- Are You Ready?

    Day Two: Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week: Day Two- Building Knowledge = Fire Fighter Safety

    Day Three: Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week: Day Three-The New Rules of Engagement

    Day Four: Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week: Day Four -The New Fire Ground

    Day Five: Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week 2011: Day Five: Near-Misses, Maydays and Floor Collapses

    Day Six: Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week 2011, Day Six; From Waldbaum’s to Hackensack-Worcester to Charleston; Legacies for Operational Safety

    Day Seven: Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week 2011, Day Seven; Fire Fighter, Fire Officer and Command Training and Preparedness

    Extra from Mayday and Rapid Intervention Realities: The Phoenix Perspective

    Hey, I'm talking to YOU; "You can make a difference!"

    Saturday, June 25, 2011

    Fire/EMS Safety, Health and Survival Week 2011, Day Seven; Fire Fighter, Fire Officer and Command Training and Preparedness

    Preparing for the Mayday Event; Not a matter of IF, But a Question of When... Are you ready? Are you Prepared?

    As the official Fire/EMS Safety Week 2011 begins to wind down, in many stations around the country this weekend is dedicated to training, drills and evolutions dedicated toward the many facets and functional elements that focus upon Surviving the Fire Ground – Fire Fighter, Fire Officer and Command Preparedness.

    The Safety Planning and Resource Aid and Guide published by the IAFC and IAFF (HERE) and the direct link here 2011 Planning and Resource Aid for Training Deliveries provided resources and planning templates and suggested training and activities to support the focus and emphasis on fire ground survival, increased focus on firefighter operations and mayday elements crucial to company integrity, firefighter safety and operational excellence.

    Being ready for a mayday (mentally and physically), self-rescue and self-survival training and methodologies are mission critical when engaging in structural firefighting operations. Proficiencies, capabilities, rigor, demeanor and performance must be orchestrated in a manner that requires optimum execution of required actions and engagements to enable a successful outcome to a reported single or multiple mayday calls.

    On a crisp fall day in October, 2009 two fires, both in residential occupancies but over 350 miles apart had similar operational needs, deployment and fire suppression and rescue engagement consistent with modern firefighting practices, methodologies and expectations.

    In one, three firefighters become trapped, resulting in a mayday, bailout and resulting LODD of a 16 year fire service veteran. City of Yonkers (NY) Firefighter Patrick Joyce died during the operations at a 3-Alarm fire in a three story residential occupancy while conducting search and rescue operations for reported trapped civilians. Incident overviews; HERE and HERE .

    The other structure fire in a residential occupancy in Syracuse, NY, results in a fire fighter mayday and successful RIT extraction that is captured on video. Two structure fires with common elements, each with projected predictable outcomes based upon past fire department operational experiences at similar structures, occupancies and fire conditions and reports; however with two different outcomes.

    The program information from The IAFF Fire Ground Survival Program (FGS)which forms a major component of thsis year's Safety Weeks activities with the focus on comprehensive survival-skills and mayday-prevention programming incorporating incident-management best practices and survival techniques from leaders in the field, and real case studies from experienced fire fighters, with the FGS program objectives aimed to educate all fire fighters to be prepared if the unfortunate happens.
    • For links to the IAFF Fire Ground Survival Program, HERE and HERE
    Here's a recap of the Self-Survial Procedure insights from the FGS Chapter 3 Section;

    Self-Survival Procedures

    FGS Online Program Chapter 3
    To improve survivability in a Mayday situation, a fire fighter must know how to alert rescuers to his or her location and perform self-survival techniques. Through the study of fire fighter fatalities, NIOSH has identified specific actions fire fighters can take to help save themselves. Variations of this same NIOSH recommendation have appeared in numerous fire fighter fatality reports. These recommendations were used to create a self survival procedure that is easy to remember using a mnemonic (GRAB LIVES). Following these steps increases the likelihood of the rescuers finding and assisting the fire fighter to safety.
    When a fire captain died when trapped by partial roof collapse in a vacant house fire in Texas, NIOSH recommended in report number F2005-09 that trapped fire fighters should:

    • First, transmit a distress signal while they still have the capability and sufficient air.

    • Next, manually activate their PASS device. To conserve air while waiting to be rescued, try to stay calm and avoid unnecessary physical activity.

    • If not in immediate danger, remain in one place to help rescuers locate them.

    • Survey their surroundings to get their bearings and determine potential escape routes.

    • Stay in radio contact with the IC and other rescuers.

    • Attract attention by maximizing the sound of their PASS device (e.g., by pointing it in an open direction); pointing their flashlight toward the ceiling or moving it around; and using a tool to make tapping noises on the floor or wall.
    The following video clip depicting FDNY Rescue Co. 1 operations at a Mayday, and provides some insightful and subtle commentary that should put some things in proper perspective about the job its hazards and the unexpected that can occur in the blink of an eye.

    Another exceptional training piece that we are providing again here on are the two part video clips provided by that covers the mayday distress cakk an subsequent RIT extraction of HFD Captain Joel Eric Abbt at a four alarm fire with civilian fatalities in a six story high rise office building on March 28, 2007.

    This video along with the information obtained from the FGS program can provide substantial opportunites for training, discussions and dialog. Take the time to watch the HFD vdeo and the elapsed time, communications and actions deployed. This mayday event had a successful outcome due to a variety of factors.

    The question is how prepared are you, your firefighters, the officers and commanders? Surviving the fire ground requires a wide variety of skills, knowledge , training and experience.

    Training is the foundation from which proficiencies are developed. If your organization has invested in supporting this weeks activities, don't stop here. There are additional day ahead to take teh momentum gathered from this week and use it to chart a new course of actions and committments for the weeks and months ahead. If you didn't have the opportunity to engage or involve, its not a missed opportuity- just find the right time and place to have your own safety day of week.

    Houston FD Mayday Part 1

    Houston FD Mayday Part 2

    Other Training and Drill Opportunties

    Suggested Considerations include the follow, as well as encouraging Departments to identify and integrate local issues, needs and identified gaps or enhancements that can contribute towards operational excellence and safety integration
    • Review and Select a Near Miss Event Report from the National Fire Fighter Near Miss Reporting System or the Report of the Week (ROTW) series related to functional area topics or mayday actions and discuss the event in a small group or company setting to identify similarities or difference from your our organization. Is your company or department susceptible to a similar event? What should be addressed?
    • Review and Select a NIOSH LODD Report from the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation Program related to functional area topics or mayday actions and discuss the event in a small group or company setting to identify similarities or difference from your our organization. Is your company or department susceptible to a similar event? What should be addressed?
    • Take out your Rapid Intervention Equipment and review the purpose and function of each piece of equipment. Identify and discuss alternative uses or tools that can be obtained or used in the event of unavailability, malfunction or additional resource needs. Discuss protocols, procedures, safety awareness and operational hazards, expectations and precautions. Inspection the equipment for operability and integrity.
    • Identify and select a recent departmental or local/regional incident event that was either a near-miss/close-call or transitioned into a mayday event. Discuss and facilitate dialog on lessons learned, gaps, enhancements or operational successes, achievements and positive elements. Identify any factors or elements that were presented in the FGS training series that are applicable to the event, strategies, tactics or operations: can anything be improved or enhanced?
    • Lead a discussion on how to call and initiate a Mayday. Discuss the factors and insights from FGS Program Chapter 3 Self-Survival Procedures and Chapter 4 Self-Survival Skills.
    • Select and lead a discussion on a pertinent incident case study from either the list provided or your own selection and discuss the relevancy of the event in terms of mayday operations, fire ground survival, incident outcome and relationship to your Department or agency. What is the relevancy, similarities or differences? Can this event or circumstances occur in your jurisdiction? What can be done to prevent a history repeating event (HRE)?
    • Review and discuss Roles and Responsibilities for mayday events and operations. How do they match up with your operating procedures, policies and expectations?
    • Develop and facilitate a table top exercise (TTE) on a mayday event scenario utilizing a building in your first-due or response jurisdiction. Take photographs and integrate into your program. Refer to example of a simple TTE attached or go to Fire for an example here;
    • Visit a residential or commercial construction site (with pre-arrival authorization and approvals) and tour the stage of construction, looking critically at the type of construction and structural systems being implemented, materials used, workmanship and signs of deficient or adverse conditions that may affect operational integrity, safety or collapse and compromise once the building is occupied. Discuss issues such as structural integrity, collapse risk, occupancy risk versus occupancy type considerations, avenues for fire travel, effects on fire load package and rate of heat release and projected fire intensity. How would you fire a fire in the occupancy? What will define the strategy and tactics that would be or should be selected and used?
    • In a controlled setting with or without PPE, Practice calling a mayday with the identified communication attributes defined in the FGS training program. Critique and practice the evolution until the group feels that it is acceptable.
    Here are some additional Resource Links to Support your training and drill needs;

    Selected References
    • IAFC: The Rules of Engagement for Firefighter Survival and The Incident Commanders Rules of Engagement for Firefighter Safety, HERE and HERE
    • NIOSH Publication No. 2010-153:NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires, HERE
    • What’s on your Radar Screen;
    • Reflecting upon these days of June;
    • · NIST References HERE and HERE
    • · Fire Fighting Tactics Under Wind Driven Conditions Report, HERE
    • · Reference Data HERE
    • · NIST Firefighter Safety and Deployment Study; Report on Residential Fireground Field Experiments download at the NIST, HERE or Synopsis HERE
    • Report: Trends in Firefighter Fatalities Due to Structural Collapse1979-2002
    • Report: Early Warning Capabilities for Firefighters:Testing of Collapse Prediction Technologies
    • · UL University on-line Program HERE
    • NIOSH LODD Reports
      • Each year an average of 105 fire fighters die in the line of duty. To address this continuing national occupational fatality problem, NIOSH conducts independent investigations of fire fighter line of duty deaths. The dedicated web page provides access to NIOSH investigation reports and other fire fighter safety resources.
      • NIOSH Web Page HERE
      • Through the Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program, NIOSH conducts investigations of fire fighter line-of-duty deaths to formulate recommendations for preventing future deaths and injuries. The program does not seek to determine fault or place blame on fire departments or individual fire fighters, but to learn from these tragic events and prevent future similar events.
      • Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation Reports, HERE
      • NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires
        • Fire fighters are often killed or injured when fighting fires in abandoned, vacant, and unoccupied structures.
        • These structures pose additional and sometimes unique risks due to the potential for fire fighters to encounter unexpected and unsafe building conditions such as dilapidation, decay, damage from previous fires and vandals, and other factors such as uncertain occupancy status. Risk management principles must be applied at all structure fires to ensure the appropriate strategy and tactics are used based on the fireground conditions encountered.
        • Report HERE
        • NIOSH Report; Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Working Above Fire Damaged Floors
          • Fire fighters are at risk of falling through fire-damaged floors. Fire burning underneath floors can significantly degrade the floor system with little indication to fire fighters working above.
          • Floors can fail within minutes of fire exposure, and new construction technology such as engineered wood floor joists may fail sooner than traditional construction methods.
          • NIOSH recommends that fire fighters use extreme caution when entering any structure that may have fire burning beneath the floor.
          • Report HERE
          • NIOSH ALERT: Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Fire Fighters due to Truss System Failures
            • Fire fighters may be injured and killed when fire-damaged roof and floor truss systems collapse, sometimes without warning.
            • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) requests assistance in preventing injuries and deaths of fire fighters due to roof and floor truss collapse during fire-fighting operations. Roof and floor truss system collapses in buildings that are on fire cannot be predicted and may occur without warning.
            • NIOSH recommends that fire departments review their occupational safety programs and standard operating procedures to ensure they include safe work practices in and around structures that contain trusses. Building owners should follow proper building codes and consider posting building construction information outside a building to advise fire fighters of the conditions they may encounter.
            • ALERT Report HERE
            • National Near Miss Reporting System (NNMRS) Operating Experience
              • The National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System is a voluntary, confidential, non-punitive and secure reporting system with the goal of improving fire fighter safety.
              • Submitted reports will be reviewed by fire service professionals. Identifying descriptions are removed to protect your identity. The report is then posted on this web site for other fire fighters to use as a learning tool.
              • National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System Web Site, HERE
              • Search Reports, HERE
              • Resources, HERE
              • Prince William County (VA) Fire Rescue Kyle Wilson LODD Report-Remembrance and Learning’s HERE
                • Resources and Report
                • LODD Report Fact Sheet (23.9kb)
                • LODD Investigative Report (9.16 mb)
                • LODD Report Presentation (6.65 mb)
                • LODD Report Basic House Model (Section 1) (1.87 mb)
                • LODD Report Fire Model (Section 3) (5.16 mb)
                • LODD Flashover Chart (60 kb)
                • Prince William County (VA) Fire and Rescue Web Site, HERE
                • NIOSH LODD REPORT: Career fire fighter dies in wind driven residential structure fire – Virginia, HERE
                • NIST Fire Fighting Tactics Under Wind Driven Conditions: Laboratory Experiments
                  • A series of experiments was conducted in our Large Fire Laboratory to examine the impact of wind control curtains and externally applied hose streams on a wind driven fire. The results from these experiments will allow us to better understand the fire dynamics within a structure and provide guidance as to the important measurements needed in the future experiments in a high-rise on Governor’s Island in New York City.
                  • Fire Fighting Tactics Under Wind Driven Conditions Report, HERE
                  • Reference Data HERE
                  • Colerain Township Eleven Minutes to Mayday; What You Need to Know HERE
                    • Colerain Township Department of Fire and Emergency Medical Services, Web Site HERE
                    • Investigation Analysis of the Squirrels nest Lane Firefighter Line of Duty Deaths April, 2010 Full Report HERE
                    • NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation Report F2008-09| CDC/NIOSH July, 2009, Report HERE
                    • news report Summary HERE
                    • Charleston Sofa Super Store Fire; Final NIST Report
                    • Analytical Study Reveals Patterns in U.S Firefighter Fatalities Report
                      • The entire report is available at a nominal fee, HERE;
                      • Journal Reference:
    1. Kumar Kunadharaju, Todd D. Smith, David M. DeJoy. Line-of-duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: An analysis of fatality investigations. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2011; 43 (3): 1171 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2010.12.030

    Training Drill Template

    This Training Schedule Template utilizes a Three Hour, Thirty minute (3.5) Hour Format integrating Suggested basic Functional Area Topics as a lead-in introduction that can be interchanged based on local needs and incorporates two (2) primary modules of the IAFF Fire Ground Survival Program (FGS). Please note you can select any modules determined to be of local need or interests. An optional Weekend Session is attached for FGS Chapter 3 and 4 Module Deliveries and a Hands-on Field Exercise Component.

    Go HERE for the Color PDF Format

    Safety Week 2011: Surviving the Fire Ground-Fire Fighter, Fire Officer & Command Preparedness

    Functional Area 3.5 Hour Schedule with FGS Modules

    HourFunctional AreaKey Issues and Considerations
    Reference and Links
    00:301Fire Fighter Life Safety Initiatives Procedures, Policies and Guides
    • Discuss and facilitate discussion on organizational

    • Review key SOPs & SOGs related to Fire Ground Operations culture and safety

    • How does Safety Week 2001 fit into your operational environment?

    • Agency Mission Statement
    • Overview & Explanation: View | Download
    • Initiative 1: Culture - View | Download
    • Initiatives 1 - 4 - View | Download
    • Initiatives 5 - 8 - View | Download
    • Initiatives 9 - 12 - View | Download
    • Initiatives 13 - 16 - View | Download
    • Agency SOPs, SOGs, Policies
    • Agency Expectations
    • Company Expectations or Gaps
    • What defines your level of preparedness?
    00:30Building Construction
    • Discuss pertinent issues relate to Building Construction that is present in your area


    Review FGS Chapter 1; Preventing the Mayday Modules 1-1 thru 1-4
    • Mayday Prevention
    • Pre-Planning
    • Building Construction
    • UL Structural Stability
    • LT Wt. Truss Systems
    • Overhead Hazards

    00:30Review FGS Chapter 1; Preventing the Mayday Modules 1-5 thru 1-8Continued
    • Mayday Prevention
    • Pre-Planning
    • Building Construction
    • UL Structural Stability
    • LODD Reports
    • Interior Size up
    • Reading Smoke
    • Air Management
    • Defensive Operations
    • Situational
    • Awareness
    • Rapid Heat Release
    • Fire Suppression OPS
    • NIST Fire Modeling

    00:303Review FGS Chapter 2;Mayday Ready Modules 2-1 thru 2-3
    • Preparing for the Mayday
    • Are You Ready?
    • Mayday Training
    • Personal safety Equipment
    • Tools & Equipment
    • Mission Critical Resources

    00:30Review FGS Chapter 2;Mayday Ready Modules 2-4 thru 2-5Continued
    • Three Point Communications
    • Role of Dispatch
    • Personal Radio Position
    • Communications Training
    • Radio Discipline
    • Comm Order Model
    • Portable Radios
    • Why “Mayday?”
    • Accountability

    00:304Wrap-up and Closing Discussions
    • Facilitate discussion on the presentations
    • Are there any identified gaps or identified areas for improvement?
    • How will the information presented be implemented during future shifts or operations?
    • What level of individual and/or company level accountability can be implemented?
    • How can the organization become safer and effective to minimize and reduce risk to mayday events to improve fire ground survivability?
    • Agency Specific and/or developed or;
    • Utilize resources from the Functional Matrix
    Web Analytics